Saturday, 25 January 2020

Major Soil Deposits Of India

Major Soil Deposits Of India

There are seven soil deposits in India, these deposit occurs on the basis of India. These soils are formed by the sediments brought down by the rivers. These are also classified by the different type of properties,and they are also rich in chemical ingredients.
Seven soil deposits are these type
(if you want to know more about that soil then read complete page)

1. Alluvial deposit(or Alluvial soils)
2. Black soils ( Black-Cotton soil)
3. Red soils
4. Desert soils
5. Laterite soils
6. Marine deposits
7. Mountain soils (or Rock soils)

Alluvial soil

The rivers deposit very fine particles of soil called alluvium in their plains during their long course of journey. Alluvial soil is also known as riverine soil because it is mainly found in the river basin. Alluvial soil are very fertile. They are rich in potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Soils in drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and these are basically found in Ganga plain area.

Desert soil

These soils are found in Thar desert in the Indian state of Rajasthan and Gujarat. This soil is formed from arid condition with practically negligible rainfall. This type of soil is highly pervious and have a low density. It requires densification to increase its bearing capacity and shearing strength. Commonly recognised plants that grow in these soils are cacti.
Boulder clay is a geological deposit of clay, often full of boulders, which is formed out of the ground moraine material of glaciers and ice-sheets. It was the typical deposit of the Glacial Period in northern Europe and North America.

Black soil

These soils are also called as regur soils.these soils are mainly found in Central India and Deccan plateau. The soil is suitable for growing cottons. It is believed that the climatic conditions along with the parent rock material are the important factors for the formation of black soil. This type of soil is typically of the Deccan trap region spread over Northwest Deccan plateau and is made from lava flows. They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and extend in South-East direction along Godavari and Krishna valleys. These soils contain essential clay minerals as montmorillonite. These soils cover an extensive area of 300,000 km2. The engineering properties of such soils are as follows:

High compressibility

Low bearing capacity

Low shearing strength

They are made up of clayey materials. They are well known for their capacity to hold moisture. They are rich in calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime

Red soil

Red soil is a type of soil that develops in a warm, temperate, moist climate under deciduous or mixed forest, having thin organic and organic-mineral layers overlying a yellowish- brownleached layer resting on an illuvium red layer. Red soils are generally derived from crystalline rock.They are usually poor growing soils, low in nutrients and humus and difficult to cultivate because of its low water holding capacity.
Parts of Kerala, Karnataka, Odisha, West Bengal.

Laterite soils

Laterite soils are formed from chemical decomposition of rocks. These soils mainly contain iron oxide which gives them characteristic pink or red color. These soils are found in Central, Eastern and Southern India. These are residual soils formed from basalt and have high specific gravity. These soils are mostly composed as calcite depositions.

Marine deposits

Marine soils are found in narrow belt near the south-west coast of India. These soils have low shearing strength and high compressibility. The marine clay are soft and highly plastic.They contain large amount of organic matter and are not suitable for construction of mega structures like buildings, cranes etc.

Mountain soils

Mountain soils are found in the valleys and hill slopes of the Himalayas at altitudes of 2100 m to 3000 m. These soils are least studied and often the vegetation cover helps in their classification.The carbon nitrogen ratio is very wide. They are silty loam to loam in texture and dark brown in colour.

Happy Guru ji

Author & Editor

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