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Saturday, 25 January 2020

Principal clay minerals

Happy Guru ji

Principal clay minerals




 Principal clay minerals, The clay materials are basically of composed of tiny crystalline substance of one or more members of a small group of minerals - commonly known as a clay minerals.These clay minerals are evolved mainly from the chemical weathering of certain Rock forming minerals. Chemically,these minerals are hydrous Aluminium-silicates with other metallic ions. Their particles are very small in size, very flaky in shape thus have considerable surface area. They can only be viewed with an electron microscope.
 The clay minerals, on the basis of their crystalline arrangement, can be divided into three main groups. It is observed that more or less similar engineering properties are exhibited by all clay minerals belonging to a particular group.
(these groups are present in clayey soils)
Kaolin group
  1. Kaolinite   (OH)4Al4Si4O10
      
  2. Halloysite (OH)4Al4Si4O10.4H2O
Montmorillonite group
Montmorillonite (OH)4Al4Si4O20.nH2O

Illite group
Illite (OH)4Ky(Sig-yAly)(Al4.Mg6.Fe4.Fe6)O20



प्रधान मिट्टी के खनिज



 मिट्टी की सामग्री मूल रूप से खनिजों के एक छोटे समूह के एक या अधिक सदस्यों के छोटे क्रिस्टलीय पदार्थ से बनी होती है - जिसे आमतौर पर मिट्टी के खनिजों के रूप में जाना जाता है। ये मिट्टी के खनिज मुख्य रूप से कुछ रॉक बनाने वाले खनिजों के रासायनिक अपक्षय से विकसित होते हैं। रासायनिक रूप से, ये खनिज अन्य धात्विक आयनों के साथ हाइड्रोजनीकृत अल्युमिनियम-सिलिकेट हैं। उनके कण आकार में बहुत छोटे होते हैं, आकार में बहुत परतदार होते हैं और इस प्रकार सतह क्षेत्र काफी होता है। उन्हें केवल एक इलेक्ट्रॉन माइक्रोस्कोप के साथ देखा जा सकता है।

 मिट्टी के खनिज, उनके क्रिस्टलीय व्यवस्था के आधार पर, तीन मुख्य समूहों में विभाजित किए जा सकते हैं। यह देखा गया है कि अधिक या कम समान इंजीनियरिंग गुणों का प्रदर्शन एक विशेष समूह से संबंधित सभी मिट्टी के खनिजों द्वारा किया जाता है।


काओलिन समूह

Kaolinite (OH) 4Al4Si4O10

  
हेलोसाइट (OH) 4Al4Si4O10.4H2O


मॉन्टमोरिलोनिट समूह

मोंटमोरिलोनाइट (OH) 4Al4Si4O20.nH2O




बीमार समूह

इलाईट (ओएच) 4Ky (सिग-यली) (Al4.Mg6.Fe4.Fe6) O20प्रधान मिट्टी के खनिज



 मिट्टी की सामग्री मूल रूप से खनिजों के एक छोटे समूह के एक या अधिक सदस्यों के छोटे क्रिस्टलीय पदार्थ से बनी होती है - जिसे आमतौर पर मिट्टी के खनिजों के रूप में जाना जाता है। ये मिट्टी के खनिज मुख्य रूप से कुछ रॉक बनाने वाले खनिजों के रासायनिक अपक्षय से विकसित होते हैं। रासायनिक रूप से, ये खनिज अन्य धात्विक आयनों के साथ हाइड्रोजनीकृत अल्युमिनियम-सिलिकेट हैं। उनके कण आकार में बहुत छोटे होते हैं, आकार में बहुत परतदार होते हैं और इस प्रकार सतह क्षेत्र काफी होता है। उन्हें केवल एक इलेक्ट्रॉन माइक्रोस्कोप के साथ देखा जा सकता है।

 मिट्टी के खनिज, उनके क्रिस्टलीय व्यवस्था के आधार पर, तीन मुख्य समूहों में विभाजित किए जा सकते हैं। यह देखा गया है कि अधिक या कम समान इंजीनियरिंग गुणों का प्रदर्शन एक विशेष समूह से संबंधित सभी मिट्टी के खनिजों द्वारा किया जाता है।


काओलिन समूह

Kaolinite (OH) 4Al4Si4O10

  
हेलोसाइट (OH) 4Al4Si4O10.4H2O


मॉन्टमोरिलोनिट समूह

मोंटमोरिलोनाइट (OH) 4Al4Si4O20.nH2O




बीमार समूह

इलाईट (ओएच) 4Ky (सिग-यली) (Al4.Mg6.Fe4.Fe6) O20

Major Soil Deposits Of India

Happy Guru ji

Major Soil Deposits Of India


There are seven soil deposits in India, these deposit occurs on the basis of India. These soils are formed by the sediments brought down by the rivers. These are also classified by the different type of properties,and they are also rich in chemical ingredients.
Seven soil deposits are these type
(if you want to know more about that soil then read complete page)

1. Alluvial deposit(or Alluvial soils)
2. Black soils ( Black-Cotton soil)
3. Red soils
4. Desert soils
5. Laterite soils
6. Marine deposits
7. Mountain soils (or Rock soils)

Alluvial soil

The rivers deposit very fine particles of soil called alluvium in their plains during their long course of journey. Alluvial soil is also known as riverine soil because it is mainly found in the river basin. Alluvial soil are very fertile. They are rich in potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops. Soils in drier areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and these are basically found in Ganga plain area.


Desert soil


These soils are found in Thar desert in the Indian state of Rajasthan and Gujarat. This soil is formed from arid condition with practically negligible rainfall. This type of soil is highly pervious and have a low density. It requires densification to increase its bearing capacity and shearing strength. Commonly recognised plants that grow in these soils are cacti.
and
Boulder clay is a geological deposit of clay, often full of boulders, which is formed out of the ground moraine material of glaciers and ice-sheets. It was the typical deposit of the Glacial Period in northern Europe and North America.

Black soil


These soils are also called as regur soils.these soils are mainly found in Central India and Deccan plateau. The soil is suitable for growing cottons. It is believed that the climatic conditions along with the parent rock material are the important factors for the formation of black soil. This type of soil is typically of the Deccan trap region spread over Northwest Deccan plateau and is made from lava flows. They cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and extend in South-East direction along Godavari and Krishna valleys. These soils contain essential clay minerals as montmorillonite. These soils cover an extensive area of 300,000 km2. The engineering properties of such soils are as follows:

High compressibility

Low bearing capacity

Low shearing strength

They are made up of clayey materials. They are well known for their capacity to hold moisture. They are rich in calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime

Red soil


Red soil is a type of soil that develops in a warm, temperate, moist climate under deciduous or mixed forest, having thin organic and organic-mineral layers overlying a yellowish- brownleached layer resting on an illuvium red layer. Red soils are generally derived from crystalline rock.They are usually poor growing soils, low in nutrients and humus and difficult to cultivate because of its low water holding capacity.
Parts of Kerala, Karnataka, Odisha, West Bengal.

Laterite soils


Laterite soils are formed from chemical decomposition of rocks. These soils mainly contain iron oxide which gives them characteristic pink or red color. These soils are found in Central, Eastern and Southern India. These are residual soils formed from basalt and have high specific gravity. These soils are mostly composed as calcite depositions.


Marine deposits


Marine soils are found in narrow belt near the south-west coast of India. These soils have low shearing strength and high compressibility. The marine clay are soft and highly plastic.They contain large amount of organic matter and are not suitable for construction of mega structures like buildings, cranes etc.

Mountain soils


Mountain soils are found in the valleys and hill slopes of the Himalayas at altitudes of 2100 m to 3000 m. These soils are least studied and often the vegetation cover helps in their classification.The carbon nitrogen ratio is very wide. They are silty loam to loam in texture and dark brown in colour.



Minerals Present In Different Type Of Soils

Happy Guru ji

Minerals Present In Different Type Of Soils


Mineral present in soil, soils hold 13 different minerals that provide nutrients to plants. By which plants grow .Not all of these essential minerals are found in every type of soil, which is why fertilizers, composts and other soil types are often added to encourage healthy plant growth. Learning what minerals are naturally occurring in particular soil types allows gardeners to amend their own soil and better meet the needs of their plants.
Minerals present in different type of soils are such as :-

Brief introduction

Sands :- Quartz, feldsper, and other minerals

Gravels :- It's also same to as Sands

Silt :- Fine quartz, mica

Clay :- Fine mica and clay minerals


Full information

Sand


Sand, Sandy soils are formed from rock such as shale, granite, quartz and limestone. Sand is the largest of all soil particle types. As a result, sandy soil is loosely packed and very free-draining. Sand does not retain water well and allows air to freely circulate through it. By its nature, sand does not hold onto many of the minerals and nutrients needed by plants.
OR
(The most common component of sand is silicon dioxide in the form of quartz. The Earth's landmasses are made up of rocks and minerals, including quartz, feldspar and mica. Weathering processes — such as wind, rain and freezing/thawing cycles — break down these rocks and minerals into smaller grains
)
OR
Plants need large amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium to survive. These three minerals plants need to grow are often lacking in other soil types, but they may be found more easily in sand. While sandy soils are considered poor for plant growth because it they are loose and quick-draining, sand is often mixed with other soils to enrich it for plant growth.

Silt


Silt, it is one of the most fertile types of soils and is highly prized by gardeners. Quartz and other necessary plant minerals are present in silt, which is finer than sand but still drains well. Silt has the capacity to both absorb and release water, keeping the soil moist but not wet. The moist nature of silt is optimal for many different types of plants.
OR
(Most silt is mineralogically distinct from clay, usually comprising mostly quartz, feldspars, chlorites and micas, rather than mostly clay minerals as in clay, though there is some overlap. Silt can also be mostly carbonates.)
Acidic silty soils are rich in calcium, magnesium and sulfur, secondary minerals important to plant growth and health. Large amounts of calcium and magnesium are present in acidic rain, which helps create silty soils. Sulfur is found in silty soils created by decomposing plant materials.

Clay


Clay,it is made up of very fine soil particles making it very dense. Wet clay is very sticky, while dry clay is hard and difficult to work. Clay soils are tightly packed, allowing very little water drainage or air flow. The dense nature of clay makes it undesirable for many types of plants, but this soil is often packed in essential plant minerals. Minerals such as boron, copper, iron, manganese, chloride, zinc and molbydenum, which are all needed by plants, may be present in clay soil types. Because clay is so hard to work, it is often mixed with other, looser soil types.
OR
(Clay minerals are composed essentially of silica, alumina or magnesia or both, and water, but iron substitutes for aluminum and magnesium in varying degrees, and appreciable quantities of potassium, sodium, and calcium are frequently present as well.)

Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.



Classification of soil on the basis of place of origin

Happy Guru ji

Classification of soil on the basis of place of origin


1. Residual soil

Residual soils are formed when soils or rocks weather at the same location due to chemicals, water, and other environmental elements, without being transported.
OR
(Residual soil, if soil particles after weathering stay at the place of origin. )

2. Transported soil

Transported soils form from weathered material deposits, which are transported by natural forces to a new site, away from the site of origin. The type of transport soil is determined by the agent, such as wind, water, ice or snow, that assists in its transportation.
OR
(Transported soils, characteristics of soil such as the size of particles, their shapes and roundness, surface texture and the degree of sorting that takes place in a soil deposit are influenced by the agency of transportation. )

TRANSPORTED SOIL ARE FURTHER CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE TRANSPORTING AGENCY AND METHOD OF DEPOSITION:

1. Alluvial deposit (by stream or river)
2. Lacustrine deposit (deposit on the bottom of lake)
3. Marine deposit (deposit on the bottom of sea)
3. Aeolian deposit (by air)
4. Glacial deposit (glacier)

5. Colluvial soil (by gravity)

Type of Soils

Alluvial soil 

 It is a loose form of soil that consists of sediments made up of eroded rock material. Silt, clay, sand and gravel are some of the constituents of alluvial soil. It is very fertile in nature and suitable for agriculture, particularly crops like rice.


Black soil    

It consists of large amount of clay and humus and is formed from basic rocks like basalt and in places of lava deposits. This type of soil is suitable for cotton cultivation. In India, it is found in the Deccan Plateau region.


Red Soil 

This type of soil is rich in iron oxide content that fives it a reddish tinge. It is formed by breakdown of igneous and metamorphic rocks. This type of soil is also found in the Deccan Plateau region in India. It is also known as yellow soil.


Laterite soil

 This type of soil is rich in aluminium and iron content and is formed in wet and tropical areas. It is formed through the process of tropical weathering or leaching. The ions formed as a result of hydrolysis during leaching are brought to surface and form salt compounds which are washed away by rains. This soil is not very fertile.


Arid soil

This type of soil is sandy and saline and is found in arid regions, particularly deserts. The soil lacks humus and moisture due to dry climate and rapid evaporation. The calcium content in this type of soil increases downwards.


Forest soil 

It is rich in dead organic matter and humus content caused by their decomposition. Thus, the soil is rich in nutrients.









भारत में पायी जाने वाली मृदाएं



मृदा शब्द की उत्पत्ति लैटिन भाषा के शब्द सोलम (Solum) से हुई है | जिसका अर्थ है फर्श (floor) | मृदा,  पृथ्वी को एक पतले आवरण में ढके रहती है तथा जल और वायु की उपयुक्त मात्रा के साथ मिलकर पौधों को जीवन प्रदान करती है | भारत में सबसे अधिक (43.4%) भूभाग पर जलोढ़ मिट्टी पायी जाती है और अन्य मिट्टियों में काली मिट्टी, लाल मिट्टी और लैटराइट मिट्टी पायी जाती है |

मृदा के सम्बन्ध में दो महत्वपूर्ण धारणाएं है :

1. पेडालोजी (Pedology)

 इसके अंतर्गत मृदा की उत्पत्ति और वर्गीकरण तथा मृदा का विस्तृत अध्ययन किया जाता है | मृदा का शीघ्र प्रायोगिक उपयोग करना इसका प्रमुख विषय नही है | एक pedalogist मृदा के प्राकृतिक वातावरण में ही उसका अध्ययन, जाँच तथा वर्गीकरण करता है |



2. एडेफोलोजी (Edaphology)

 इसके अनुसार मृदा, पेड़ पौधों के लिए एक प्राकृतिक आवास है| पौधों के उत्पादन सम्बन्धी मृदा के गुणों का अध्ययन ही एडेफोलोजी कहलाता है | इस का मुख्य लक्ष्य आहार एवं फाइबर का उत्पादन करना होता है |


भारत में पायी जाने वाली प्रमुख मृदाएँ इस प्रकार हैं :

1. जलोढ़ मिट्टी (Alluvial Soil)

 इस मिट्टी का विस्तार लगभग 15 लाख वर्ग किमी. है| भारत में सबसे अधिक (43.4%) भूभाग पर जलोढ़ मिट्टी पायी जाती है | यह उत्तर भारत के मैदानों तथा दक्षिण भारत के तटीय मैदानों की मिट्टी है जो मुख्यतः नदियों द्वारा वाहित होती है | इस मृदा में पोटाश व चूना प्रचुर मात्रा में पाया जाता है तथा फास्फोरस, नाइट्रोजन एवं जीवांश की कमी होती है | यह मिट्टी गन्ना, गेहूं, धान, तिलहन, दलहन आदि की खेती के लिए बहुत ही उपजाऊ होती है |



2. लाल मिट्टी (Red Soil)

  इस मिट्टी का विस्तार मुख्य तौर से तमिलनाडु, कर्नाटक, दक्षिण पूर्वी महाराष्ट्र, ओडिशा, पूर्वी मध्य प्रदेश, बुन्देलखंड के कुछ भागों में तथा छोटा नागपुर में है | इस मृदा का विस्तार देश के 18.6% भूभाग पर है | इस प्रकार यह देश में पायी जाने वाली दूसरी सबसे अधिक विस्तृत क्षेत्र वाली मृदा है | इसका निर्माण ग्रेनाइट, नीस और सिस्ट जैसे खनिजों से होता है | इसमें लोहे का अंश सबसे अधिक होता है | इसमें पैदा की जाने वाली फसलें तम्बाकू, बाजरा, तिलहन और गेहूं हैं |


3. काली मिट्टी (Black Soil) 

 काली मिट्टी का विस्तार मुख्यतः गुजरात, महाराष्ट्र, मध्य प्रदेश, और तमिलनाडु के लावा क्षेत्रों में पाया जाता है | यह भारत के 15% भूभाग में पायी जाती है | उत्तर प्रदेश में इसे करेल तथा कपास मृदा भी कहा जाता है | इसमें लोहा चूना, पोटैशियम, मैग्नेशियम, तथा एल्युमिनियम की मात्रा बहुत होती है | इसमें पैदा की जाने वाली मुख्य फसलें कपास, मूंगफली, सोयाबीन, तिलहन एवं गेहूं इत्यादि हैं|



4. लैटराइट मिट्टी (Laterite Soil)

 यह स्थान बद्ध मिट्टी है जो देश के लगभग 7% भूभाग पर पायी जाती है | इसमें लोहा, एल्युमिनियम, अधिक मात्रा में पाये जाते हैं तथा इसमें नाइट्रोजन, पोटाश, फास्फोरस, चूना आदि की कमी होती है | इसमें पैदा होने वाली मुख्य फसलें हैं :चाय, कहबा, रबर, काजू और सिनकोना आदि |




5. मरुस्थलीय मिट्टी (Desert Soil)

ये मृदाएँ शुष्क तथा आर्द्र शुष्क प्रदेशों में पायी जाती हैं इस प्रकार की मृदाएँ मुख्य रूप से राजस्थान, हरियाणा, पश्चिमी उत्तर प्रदेश, दक्षिणी पंजाब के भागों में पायीं जातीं हैं | इस प्रकार यह मिट्टी 2.85 लाख किमी2 भूभाग में फैली है| पानी की कमी और अधिक तापमान के कारण ये मृदाएँ टूटकर बालू के कणों में विखंडित हो जातीं हैं | इसमें फास्फोरस अधिक मात्रा में पाया जाता है लेकिन इनमे जीवांश ईधन और नाइट्रोजन की कमी होती है |


6. पर्वतीय मृदाएँ (Hill Soil)

 इसका विस्तार भारत में लगभग 3 लाख वर्ग किमी में पाया जाता है | इसे वनीय मृदा भी कहते हैं | इस प्रकार की मिट्टियाँ कश्मीर से लेकर अरुणाचल प्रदेश तक फैली हई है | इसमें जीवांश अधिक मात्रा में पाये जाते हैं लेकिन फास्फोरस, पोटाश, चूना की कमी होती है | यह मृदा सेव, नाशपाती और अलूचा आदि के लिए अच्छी मानी जाती है |


भारत में कौन सी मिट्टी कहां पायी जाती है इसका उल्लेख इस चित्र में किया गया है |





Wednesday, 22 January 2020

100 Important Books & Authors

Happy Guru ji

100 Important Books & Authors

100 important books and Authors are important for all competitive exam, read and learn carefully and comment if any mistake or advice.


1):- David Copperfield → Charles Dickens

2):- Hamlet → William Shakespeare

3):- The Rime of the Ancient Mariner → Samuel Taylor Coleridge

4):- Das Capital → Karl Mark

5):- Animal Farm → George Orwell

6):- Dialogues → Plato

7):- Tempest → William Shakespeare

8):- Main Kemp → Ad loaf Hitler

9):- Mother → Maxim Gorky

10):- As You Like it → William Shakespeare

11):- Paradise Lost → John Milton

12):- The Tale of Two Cities → Charles Dickens

13):- The Merchant of Venice → William Shakespeare

14):- Pride and Prejudice → Jane Austen

15):- All’s Well that Ends Well → William Shakespeare

16):- Anna Karenina → Leo Tolstoy

17):- Origin of Species → Charles Darwin

18):- Discovery of India → Jawahar Lal Nehru

19):- Asian Drama → Gunner Myrdal

20):- The Old Man and The Sea → Earnest Hemingway

21):- Julius Caesar → William Shakespeare

22):- Man and Superman → George Bernard Shaw

23):- War and Peace → Leo Tolstoy

24):- Gulliver’s Travels → Jonathan Swift

25):- Heaven and Earth → Lord Byron

26):- Blue Bird → Lord Alfred Tennyson

27):- Othello → William Shakespeare

28):- India Wins Freedom → Abul Kalam Azad

29):- Marriage and Moral → Bertrand Russell

30):- God of the Small Things → Arundhuty Roy

31):- Caesar and Cleopatra → George Bernard

32):- Romeo and Juliet → William Shakespeare

33):- Jungle Book → Rudyard Kipling

34):- Lycidas → John Milton

35):- Emma → Jane Austen

36):- A pair of Blue Eyes → Thomas Hardy

37):- Odyssey → Homer

38):- Memories of the Second World War → Winston Churchill

39):- For Whom the Bell Tolls → Earnest Hemingway

40):- Wealth of Nations → Adam Smith

41):- West Land → T.S Eliot

42):- Vanity Fair → W.M Thackeray

43):- Prince → Machiavelli

44):- Republic → Plato
45):- Freedom → Bertrand Russell

46):- A Long Walk to Freedom → Nelson Mandela

47):- Robinson Crusoe → Daniel Defoe

48):- Sons and Lovers, The Rainbow → D.H Lawrence

49):- Ulysses → Lord Alfred Tennyson

50):- Sense and Sensibility → Jane Austen

100 important books and Authors are important for all competitive exam, read and learn carefully and comment if any mistake or advice.
And also read the book for motivation  -: Rich-dad-poor-dad

51):- Roots → Alex Haley

52):- To Skylark → P. B Shelly

53):- Time Machine → H. W Wells

54):- Try and Try Again → W.E Hick son

55):- Seven Seas → Rudyard Kipling

56):- Around the World in Eighty Days→ Jules Verne

57):- Waiting For Goddot → Samuel Becket

58):- Things Fall Apart → Chinua Achebe

59):- Silent Women → Ben Johnson

60):- Wuthering Heights → Emile Bronte

61):- The Way of the World → William Congreve

62):- Voyage of Lilliput → Jonathon Swift

63):- Top Secret → Henry Fielding

64):- Twelfth Night → William Shakespeare

65):- Utopia → Sir Thomas Moore

66):- Tom Jones → Henry Fielding

67):- The Return of the Native → Thomas Hardy

68):- The Alchemist → Ben Jonson

69):- Tess of t D’Urbervilles → Thomas Hardy

70):- Scholar Gipsy → Matthew Arnold

71):- The Rape of the Lock → Alexander Pope

72):- Prelude → William Wordsworth

73):- Ode to the West Wind → P.B Shelly

74):- Great Expectations → Charles Dickens

75):- King Lear → William Shakespeare

76):- Kublai Khan → Samuel Taylor Coleridge

77):- Isabella → John Keats

78):- Measure and Measure → William Shakespeare

79):-In Memoriam → Lord Alfred Tennyson

80):- Pilgrim’s Progress → John Bunyan

81):- Oliver Twist → Charles Dickens

82):- Paradise Regained → John Milton

83):- Iliad → Homer

84):- Divine Comedy → Dante

85):- Crime and Punishment → Dostoevsky
86):- A Brief History Of Time → Stephen Hawking

87):- A Farewell to Arms → Earnest Hemingway

88):- A Midsummer’s Nights Dream → William
Shakespeare
89):- Adonis → P. B Shelly

90):- Akbar Nama → Abul Fazal

91):- Canterbury Tales → Geoffrey Chaucer

92):- Comedy of Errors → William Shakespeare
93):- Don Juan → Lord Byron

94):- Dr. Faustus → Christopher Marlowe

95):- Politics → Aristotle

96):- Volpone → Ben Jonson

97):- Dictionary → Samuel Johnson

98):- A Passage to India → E. M. Forster

99):- Macbeth → William Shakespeare

100):- Samson Agonists → John Milton

This page consist 100 Important books and Author, and if you want to read any english book or novel in hindi or english comment below or on my facebook page.
May be this will be helpful for your all competitive exam.
100 important books and Authors are important for all competitive exam, read and learn carefully and comment if any mistake or advice.

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